West coast volcanos/thermals hide GOLD!

I just saw a public tv show on minerals, gold, platinum just now and sat down to write this while it was fresh in my mind. Now that GOLD is at 1700$ an oz, it is TIME TO PAN gold, FIND GOLD, METAL DETECTOR UP SOME GOLD, (LOCATE PLACES/ SERVICES of every kind (  http://www.goldmaps.com/links.html ) or  if You are rich, BUY GOLD. Read where, how, who and why by googling up reference pages, using words like PROSPECTOR, THERMAL, GOLD... you combine them or it doesn't work as well. MAPS. I'd add that. CAMPING and LODE.  The show I was watching  said that the nuggets always came up thru the smokestacks and/or thermals. They depicted sites in CYPRUS that were the antique copper/ gold mines that spawned the BRONZE age in 4000 BC. There were thermals in JAPAN rich in GOLD, and then they showed the under-sea mountain ridges that had these volcanic spouts that pulled minerals from deep below. And there was a picture of the undersea mountain ridge, how it crossed the PACIFIC and like a big, long DRAGON, threw itself across the CALIFORNIA, OREGON BORDER!

I say we get a pick axe, hand sized, and hit the mts flanks where you see red iron deposits in the mountain walls as gold is there too. It is washed down hill by rain. A geologist told me: "There still is lots of Gold left behind in Calif. Any west-draining river off the Sierra Nevada Range has gold in it. The big problem is how much time do you have, how hard do you want to work and how much will you find. Panning is hard work, time-consuming and probably you will find some flakes here & there (not enough to pay the bills). In order to do better, you must build a sluice box and shovel lots of sand & gravel & dirt into it and let flowing water do the hard work for you. Or better yet, get a vacuum hose thing (like deep sea treasure hunters use) and suck up the sediment at the bottom of the stream beds and the stuff under boulders and run that thru the sluice box. It's a full time job and finding the sweet spots is trial & error."

What you want to do is find the DRAGON! THERE is an undersea crest in pacific, a mt top thingie, 46000 miles
long,winding like a snake, where it hits our westcoast is where these smoke stacks exude the minerals from earth's ctr. You want to find the thermal springs in that area, get a vacuum, sluice and pull the sand out from under rocks.

has a fine map showing volcanoes in this area.


EXAMINE those sites, google these words "sea floor" + maps FIND the dragon's back where it winds ON DRY LAND Go there with pick, pan, lumber to make a sluice. tent, food, stove, light, a gun and a gal.
FRIDGE that locks so bears cannot smell ya.

mining sources

Google around looking for the sonoma-clear lake area of Northern California

GOOGLE or LOOK for a mix of smoke stacks, geo thermals, hot springs. Usually they're mentioned in TOURIST literature. "Hot Springs," like WHEELER SPRINGS. YOu want to tent out around that area. As GOLD is voer 400$ an oz!


NEXT,  maybe we can envision a movie script written about this area, modern GOLD FEVER. A script which ultimately will give you a vacation in the area, say while doing the actual FILM SHOOT. We are there for three months. This area has history and elements that would make a flick. Say a historical western script,replete with California injuns who know where the hidden gold is. And some early white trash i.e. the villain. Set it in 1850's.


BUt check out where THE DRAGON leaves the Pacific and crosses into the SIERRA NEVADA, I saw the best undersea map (better than those I've googled so far,) on the actual t.v show. DRAGON's back  hits land somewhere right around Clear Lake. Volcanoes and smoke stacks and thermals characterise its passage across land.

You wanna be there and vacation, tent there, pan there. Set scripts there. You know, maybe we could help each other on this? GOOGLE sonoma-clearlake + thermals+ panning + maps + hot springs





http://www.naturenw.org/rock-gold.htm mining instructions for amateurs.

it's always in quartz veins in place or pulled by water down into rivers.

Seek out a GOOGLE PAGE with a list of articles. Just One of them, (scientific analysis of what comes out of those hot springs, is  below)
Page 1
Rytuba and M. Dean KleinkopfINTRODUCTIONEnvironmental concerns related
to mining and processing of silica-carbonate mercury deposits consist
primarily of:mercury contamination of soil and water from mine waste
rock and tailings (calcine), mercury vapor released duringore
processing, and acid mine drainage and toxic metal release into drainage
basins. Mercury released into lakes andbogs may become methylated and
methylmercury (CH Hg ) may become highly concentrated through
biomagnifica3+tion in fish and animals that consume fish. The mercury
concern for humans is primarily related to consumptionof contaminated
fish.See Rytuba and others (preceding model, this volume) for a
discussion of global mercury budgets, cycling,and processes.SUMMARY OF
geologyDeposits are generally small (0.1 to 10 million metric tonnes of
ore containing 0.2 to 0.8 weight percent mercury)and consist of
cinnabar-bearing veins and veinlets and massive cinnabar replacement
bodies developed withinserpentinite that is hydrothermally altered to a
silica-carbonate assemblage. Some orebodies are hosted in
argillicallyaltered shale and siltstone adjacent to silica-carbonate
altered serpentinite. Orebodies are localized along regionalfaults,
which cut tabular, serpentinized ophiolite bodies, and along the base of
these tabular bodies. Impermeableserpentinite channels focus the flow of
hydrothermal fluids resulting in extensive silica-carbonate alteration
ofserpentinite for several kilometers along contacts with adjacent
country rock. Large orebodies are present in hingeregions of anticlinal
structures where hydrothermal fluids are trapped below impermeable shale
and silica-carbonatealtered serpentinite. Mercury vapor derived from
organic-rich sedimentary rocks as a result of elevated regional heatflow
reacts with H S in the gas-rich cap in anticlinal structures to form
large silica-carbonate mercury deposits. 2Where structural traps are
absent, silica-carbonate altered serpentine contains only small mercury
deposits oranomalous concentrations of mercury. Because vapor transport
is an important process in these deposits, only metalsthat can be
transported in a vapor phase are concentrated in these deposits;
exceptions include metals such as nickeland chromium that are
remobilized from the serpentinite by hydrothermal fluids. The
hydrothermal fluid that formsthese deposits is low temperature ( <120 C)
and characterized by high concentrations of CO -CH -H
S-petroleumo242(Peabody and Einaudi, 1992; Sherlock and others, 1993)
that reflects its derivation from an evolved connate
water(Donnelly-Nolan and others, 1993). This connate water was generated
during the early stage of elevated regionalheat flow (Rytuba, 1995).
Very young deposits, such as those at the Elgin and Turkey Run mercury
deposits, Calif.,have active associated geothermal gas and hot
springs.ExamplesNew Almaden (Bailey and Everhart, 1964), Aetna (Yates
and Hilpert, 1946), Knoxville (Sherlock and others, 1993),Culver-Baer
(Peabody and Einaudi, 1992); Calif.Spatially and (or) genetically
related deposit typesThese deposits are present along major structures
and form during the early stage of elevated regional heat flow. They may
subsequently be overprinted by higher temperature, hot-spring type
gold-mercury-antimony deposits asthe regional thermal anomaly reaches a
maximum and near-surface volcanic activity develops. The
McLaughlin,Calif., hot-spring gold-mercury deposit, which overprinted
earlier formed silica-carbonate mercury deposits of theKnoxville
district (Rytuba, 1995), exemplifies this process.Potential
environmental considerationsThe primary geoenvironmental concerns from
these deposits are potential acid mine drainage and release of
mercurywith the result that mercury abundances in soil, water, and (or)
vegetation may be elevated above baselineconcentrations established by
the global atmospheric mercury flux. The potential for acid mine
drainage derives fromoxidation and dissolution of pyrite and marcasite
in silica-carbonate altered rock that hosts the orebodies as well asfrom
extensive areas of silica-carbonate alteration extending beyond ore
zones. In some districts, altered rock extends
Page 2
as much as several kilometers beyond the outer limits of ore.
Carbonate minerals in the silica-carbonate alterationzone partially
mitigate associated acid generation.Direct introduction of mercury into
water from these deposits is minimal since the primary ore
mineral,cinnabar, is relatively insoluble and is not readily oxidized
under ambient, near-surface conditions. Mine waterdraining deposits that
contain native mercury may have elevated mercury concentrations.
Introduction of mercuryinto the environment is primarily from release of
mercury into the atmosphere when ore is retorted. Whenatmospheric
mercury concentrations are elevated, plants uptake mercury through their
leaves and mercury isconcentrated in plant foliage. Wash off from plants
and dry deposition of leaf litter to the forest floor is the
primaryroute for introduction of mercury into water and soil.
Methylation of mercury in bog and lake environments isenhanced by
increased mercury concentrations as well as by sulfate generated during
oxidation of pyrite andmarcasite.Exploration geophysicsRemote sensing
techniques can identify serpentinite by infra red reflectance, thermal
properties, and botanicalanomalies. The sparse and unusual vegetation
developed on serpentinite and its silica-carbonate altered equivalentis
prominent on remote-sensing images. Aeromagnetic highs delineate
serpentinite bodies and serpentinite in faultzones, particularly small
deposits located along regionally extensive fault zones. Magnetic
surveys may have limitedutility in identification of serpentinite
developed from carbonate rocks, most of which have low initial iron
contents.Because cinnabar and native mercury have high specific gravity,
large deposits may be detected by detailed gravitysurveys. Because
mercury is highly conductive, deposits that contain high concentrations
of native mercury, maybe associated with resistivity lows and induced
polarization highs.ReferencesGeology: Rytuba (1986), and Rytuba and
Miller (1994).Environmental geology, geochemistry: Varekamp and Buseck
(1986), Nriagu and Pacyna (1988), Lindberg and others(1992), and Hurley
ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTSDeposit sizeDeposits are typically small and
contain less than 10 million metric tonnes; many deposits are less than
0.1 millionmetric tonnes. Deposits are clustered along major structures
and because silica-carbonate alteration typically extendsfor several
kilometers beyond deposits, areas significantly larger than the ore
deposit site may be impacted. Mostdeposits have been mined by
underground methods. Visual impact is relatively limited at rare open
pit minesbecause tailings piles, except those associated with the
largest deposits, are small.Host rocksShale and siltstone are locally
important host rocks where they form impermeable cap rocks in anticlinal
structures.Surrounding geologic terraneDeposits are primarily localized
along the base of serpentinized ophiolite bodies, serpentinite diapirs,
and serpentinitetectonically emplaced along regional fault zones.
Surrounding terranes typically do not contain carbonate rocks
noralteration assemblages with significant acid-buffering capacity. Most
deposits are Tertiary, formed near the surface,and have surficial
expressions of geothermal activity such as gas vents and hot springs. As
a result, elevatedabundances of mercury may be present in soil and
sediment deposited at the time of ore deposition.Wall-rock alterationThe
silica-carbonate assemblage consists of a central core of quartz + opal
+ chalcedony + magnesite + dolomite +calcite + marcasite + pyrite that
grades outward into a magnesite + magnetite + calcite + dolomite
assemblage andthen finally into serpentinite + magnetite. Pyrite and
marcasite in the sulfidized central core of the alterationassemblage
comprise from about 2 to 10 volume percent and are the only important
acid generating sulfide mineralspresent. The carbonate assemblage may
partially buffer acid generated by sulfide mineral oxidation. In the
upperpart of these deposits an advanced argillic alteration zone that
consists of kaolinite + alunite + cristobalite + sulfurmay be present;
most often this alteration assemblage has been removed by erosion.
Pyrite and marcasite in thisalteration assemblage may be oxidized and
contribute to acid mine drainage generation.
Page 3
Nature of ore=Orebodies are variable in character. Most consist of
tabular to irregular replacement masses but discrete veins andbreccia
bodies are common; more rarely, stockwork veins are present. Repeated
post ore movement along controllingfault zones causes development of
blocks (phacoids) of very high grade cinnabar within fault gouge. In
vein andbreccia orebodies, marcasite and more rarely stibnite are
present. Most replacement orebodies are monomineralic;they consist of
cinnabar and minor native mercury.Deposit trace element
geochemistryWithin the ore zone, trace elements, in decreasing order of
importance, include 0.1 to 1,000 ppm antimony, 10 to3,000 ppm nickel,
600 to 5,000 ppm chromium, 2 to 100 ppm tungsten, and 1 to 12 ppm
thallium. Arsenicabundances are typically very low, less than 2 ppm, in
these deposits. Base metal concentrations, less than 10 ppmlead, less
than 100 ppm copper, and less than 50 ppm zinc, are similarly low.Ore
and gangue mineralogy and zonationPrimary ore minerals are cinnabar and
native mercury and more rarely in the oxidized, near surface
environmentsmore soluble mercury oxychloride, sulfate, and silicate
minerals are present. Pyrite and marcasite are the maingangue
minerals.Mineral characteristicsMost cinnabar, about 0.2 mm, is very
fine grained in replacement orebodies but in rare cases is coarser
grained inveins. Pyrite and marcasite are coarser grained and typically
range from 0.5 to 5 mm.Secondary mineralogyNear surface exposures of
deposits and alteration zones expose pyrite and marcasite to weathering,
which results information of limonite and other iron oxide minerals.
Cinnabar and native mercury are not typically affected byweathering
process because of their low solubilities under ambient conditions.
However, under extreme oxidizingand acid pH conditions mercury sulfate
and oxychloride minerals may form as coatings on surface exposures.
Theseyellow and green minerals are photosensitive and rapidly turn black
when exposed to the sun. As a result, theseminerals can be easily
misidentified as manganese oxide minerals. Small amounts of mercury
silicate and chromateminerals may also be present; these, along with
mercury sulfate and oxychloride minerals, are more readilysolubilized
than cinnabar and native mercury.Topography, physiographyOrebodies are
associated with large zones of silica-carbonate alteration that
typically form resistant ridges with sparsevegetation. Adjacent
serpentinite also has sparse vegetation. Altered serpentinite has a
distinctive red-brown colordue to the presence of iron oxide minerals.
Deposits are generally exposed at or near the surface and are
alongregional structures that may extend for tens of
kilometers.HydrologyIncreased hydrologic head during wet periods results
in ground water flow along the regional structures that controlthe
location of silica-carbonate alteration and ore deposits. Adjacent
serpentinite bodies serve as impermeableaquitards that focus ground
water flow along contacts between altered and fresh serpentinite.Mining
and milling methodsIndividual deposits are generally small but in most
cases, several deposits are localized along the same regional faultzone.
Most mines are underground operations in which high grade pockets and
ore shoots have been exploited byopen stope mining. Waste rock, only a
small fraction of which is brought to the surface, is used to
backfillunderground workings. High grade ore zones have sharp contacts
with low grade ore. Because low grade ore is onlyrarely mined, stopes
tend to follow the outline of high grade orebodies and are irregular in
shape. Near-surfaceorebodies have been mined by open pit methods.See
Rytuba and Klein (this volume) for a discussion of methods used to
extract mercury form ore.Mercury has been typically bottled in 76 pound
flasks at the retort or furnace site. Inefficiencies in thisprocess have
caused mercury contamination of mill sites and calcines. More recently
the metric ton flask has beenused.
Page 4
ENVIRONMENTAL SIGNATURES-Drainage signaturesAcid mine water has a pH
of 1 to 4 and precipitates amorphous iron hydroxide that selectively
absorbs mercury fromthe water; these precipitates may contain as much as
20 ppm mercury. Elevated concentrations of as much as 670ppm nickel and
200 ppm chromium, may also be present in these precipitates. Acid mine
water may contain 100to 1,000 mg/l iron and 0.1 to several µg/l mercury.
Acid mine water draining deposits that include stibnite maycontain 1 to
10 mg/l antimony but base-metal concentrations as well as abundances of
chemical precipitates are low.In active geothermal water associated with
recently formed deposits, very high tungsten concentrations rangefrom 1
to 10 mg/l; in stream water as much as several kilometers downstream
from deposits, elevated tungstenconcentrations range from 260 to 680
µg/l (Rytuba and Miller, 1994). Mercury and iron concentrations, 0.2 to
2.7µg/l and 0.05 to 1.4 mg/l, respectively, in unfiltered stream water
are usually higher than in filtered water. However,these abundances
return to baseline concentrations, 0.2 µg/l mercury and 500 µg/l iron,
within several kilometersof mercury deposits and (or) geothermal sites
(Janik and others, 1994).Metal mobility from solid mine wastesSulfide
minerals in ore are oxidized during roasting, which causes calcines to
have a distinctive red color attributableto contained iron oxide
minerals. In this high Eh environment iron is readily leachable and
associated metals suchas antimony, arsenic, and thallium may be
mobilized as well. Mercury in calcine is native mercury and a varietyof
mercury oxychloride and sulfate minerals that are readily
solubilized.Soil, sediment signatures prior to miningMercury abundances
in soil range from 10 to 100 ppb and may reach several ppm directly over
exposed orebodies.Stream sediment samples from drainages in mineralized
areas contain 2 to 200 ppm mercury. Stream sedimentsamples from drainage
basins with young deposits and active geothermal systems contain 0.3 to
141 ppm mercury,1.2 to 17.4 ppm antimony, and 8.3 to 20.3 ppm arsenic
(Janik and others, 1994). Heavy mineral concentrates fromstreams that
drain areas near deposits contain elevated metal concentrations,
including as much as 4,400 ppmmercury, 10,000 ppm barium, 7,000 ppm
chromium, 150 ppm copper, 500 ppm nickel, 200 ppm lead, 300 ppm tin,and
500 ppm zinc.Potential environmental concerns associated with mineral
processingIn tailings and waste dumps pyrite and marcasite are
susceptible to oxidation and acid water may develop.Mine tailings,
commonly termed calcine, consist of the rock aggregate generated after
mercury ore has beenprocessed by roasting in a retort or furnace to
remove mercury. Mercury recovery during retorting ranges from 90to 95
percent, which results in calcine that may contain from 5 to 10 percent
of the mercury originally present inthe ore. During roasting, pyrite and
marcasite are oxidized to iron oxide minerals, which gives calcine dumps
theircharacteristic red color. The amount of mercury removed from small
mines is extremely variable so that calcinesassociated with these
operations may contain significant mercury.Mercury abundances in calcine
range from 10 to 1,500 ppm depending on the efficiency of the retorts
used.Abundances of other trace metals, such as nickel and chromium,
originally present in elevated concentration in ore,range from 100 to
5,000 ppm. Calcine adjacent to condensing pipes where mercury was
recovered and bottled inflasks may have mercury contents of as much as
several thousand ppm because mercury was commonly spilled inthis area
and absorbed by iron oxide coatings on calcine fragments.Calcine was
commonly used as road metal on unpaved roads surrounding mercury
districts. This may bea problem in the case of calcine that was
contaminated by mercury during the recovery process. Introduction
oftailings particles into creeks is a concern because native mercury and
mercury oxychloride and sulfate minerals canbe methylated in aqueous
environments. The fine grained nature of the calcine also increases
water turbidity.Smelter signaturesSeveral different types of retorts and
condensing pipes have been used to recover mercury. These range
fromrelatively small, inefficient single and double pipe retorts at
small mines to very efficient Herschoff type retorts atlarger mines. In
most cases prior to the 1970s, significant amounts of elemental mercury
vapor and ionic mercurycomplexed as a chloride or sulfate were vented to
the atmosphere. Elevated ambient air concentrations of mercuryresult in
increased leaf uptake of mercury by plants downwind from retort sites
and in elevated mercuryconcentrations in soil through wash off and
litter fall to the forest floor. SO was also released to the
atmosphere2from less efficient mine operations. These releases may
increase sulfate and acid concentrations in water, which in
Page 5
turn enhance mercury methylation.Climate effects on environmental
signaturesIn wet climates oxidation and dissolution of pyrite and
marcasite increase the possibility of acid mine drainage. Formation of
sulfate minerals and derivation of organic carbon from plants enhances
mercury methylation by sulfatereducing bacteria in wet climates. In high
temperature, dry climates, soil gas emission of elemental mercury
isimportant; this process may increase the area affected by elevated
mercury if adjacent plant communities uptakemercury in their
leaves.Geoenvironmental geophysicsGeophysical methods can be used to
identify contaminated water and soil around mining operations.
Electromagneic, direct current resistivity, and induced polarization
surveys can detect and monitor conductive acidic groundwaterplumes
resulting from oxidation and dissolution of pyrite and marcasite in
altered rocks that host mercury deposits.Hot spots in tailing piles that
result from ongoing redox reactions can be monitored using self
potential methods. Ground penetrating radar can detect near-surface
acidic water. REFERENCES CITEDBailey, E.H., and Everhart, D.L., 1964,
Geology and quicksilver deposits of the New Almaden District Santa
ClaraCounty, California: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 360,
206 p.Donnelly-Nolan, J.M., Burns, M.G., Goff, F.E., Peters, E.K., and
Thompson, J.M., 1993, The Geysers-Clear Lakearea, California: thermal
waters, mineralization, volcanism, and geothermal potential: Economic
Geology,v. 88, p. 301-316.Janik, C.J., Goff, F., and Rytuba, J.J., 1994,
Mercury in waters and sediments of the Wilbur Hot Springs area,Sulphur
Creek Mining District, California: EOS Transactions American Geophysical
Union, v. 75, no. 44,p. 243.Hurley, J.P., Krabbenhoft, D.P., Babiarz,
C.L., and Andren, A.W., 1994, Cycling of mercury across the
sediment-water interface in seepage lakes, in Baker, A., ed.,: American
Chemical Society Series No. 237,Environmental chemistry of lakes and
reservoirs, p. 425-449Lindberg, S.E., Meyers, T.P., Taylor, G.E.,
Turner, R.R., and Schroeder, W.H., 1992, Atmosphere-surface exchangeof
mercury in a forest: results of modeling and gradient approaches:
Journal of Geophysical Research, v.97, no. D2, p. 2519-2528.Nriagu,
J.O., and Pacyna, J.M., 1988. Quantitative assessment of worldwide
contamination of air, water and soilsby trace metals: Nature, v. 333, p.
134-139.Peabody, C.E., and Einaudi, M.T., 1992, Origin of petroleum and
mercury in the Culver-Bear Cinnabar deposit,Mayacmas district,
California: Economic Geology, v. 87, p. 1078-1102.Rytuba, J.J., 1986,
Descriptive model of silica-carbonate Hg, in Cox, D.P., and Singer,
D.A., eds., Mineral depositmodels: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 1693,
p. 181._________1995, Cenozoic metallogeny of California: Geological
Society of Nevada Symposium on Geology andOre Deposits of the American
Cordillera, Program and Abstracts, p. A68.Rytuba, J.J., and Miller,
W.R., 1994, Environmental geochemistry of active and extinct hot spring
mercury depositsin the California Coast Ranges, in USGS Research on
Mineral Resources-1994 Part A-Program andAbstracts: U.S. Geological
Survey Circular 1103-A, p. 90-91.Sherlock, R.L., Logan, M.A.V., and
Jowett, E.C., 1993, Silica carbonate alteration of serpentinite,
implications forthe association of precious metal and mercury
mineralization in the Coast Ranges, in Rytuba, J.J., ed.,
Activegeothermal systems and gold-mercury deposits in the Sonoma-Clear
Lake volcanic fields: Society ofEconomic Geology Guidebook 16, p.
90-116.Varekamp, J.C., and Buseck, P.R., 1986, Global mercury flux from
volcanic and geothermal sources: AppliedGeochemistry, v. 1, p.
65-73.Yates, R.G., and Hilpert, L.S., 1946, Quicksilver deposits of the
eastern Mayacmas District, Lake and Napa Counties,California: California
Journal of Mines and Geology, v. 42, no. 3, p. 231-286.

THE GOVERNMENT has pamphlets on this. The KEYWORDS to search on, prospecting, prospect gold, camping.