The German Health Ministry has been warning dentists since 1993 not to use palladium copper alloys any longer....especially people who have nickel allergies as they react to palladium. Adding dental metals like palladium heightens the risk of illness in some people. Palladium/Copper alloys contain up to 10% indium and can cause severe periodontal disease. Contents of Palladium/Copper alloys can be up to 10% Indium, Gallium, Zinc, Tin, Cobalt. In Switzerland Palladium dental alloys have been banned. Laboratory tests are showing the following toxic effects: -obstruction of important enzymsystems like creatin-linase, aldolase, alcalite phospatase, carbon-anhydrase, trypsin, chymotropsin -disturbance of collage synthesis like bone and cartilage -obstruction of thymidin in the DNA -accumulation in diff. organs -allergic reactions in people with nickel allergy

Early symptoms of toxicity: increased salivation pain in teeth and jaw tongue burning cold feeling in mouth metal taste peeling of mucous membrane around teeth fungus like coating in throat and sore throat painful, swollen lymph nodes in the neck late symptoms: dying of teeth granulomas pus pockets with dead tissue swollen tongue systemic early symptoms: extreme nervousness extreme tiredness confusion memory loss dizziness migraine headaches burning of eyes allergies impairment of immune system burning blisters on body systemic late signs: nerve pain in the face paralysis of face muscle cramps of tongue, lips, around eyes sinus infection bronchitis lung ailments without clear reason difficulty breathing at night problems with stomach, intestines, liver, bladder, kidneys weight loss joint and muscle pain muscle cramps and weakness ear noise visual disturbance depression insomnia outbreaks of sweat palpitation difficulty to concentrate.

------- Division of Biological Materials of  Northwestern University/Chicago.

The corrosion resistance of three palladium alloys and one conventional
high noble alloy were examined by isolated polarization. Using this
method, isolated plots of the cathodic and anodic reaction can be
recorded. The corrosion current is given as the anodic and cathodic
plots intercept. The current densities of the palladium alloys were
approximately ten times higher than of the high noble alloy. All results
were dependent on the acidity of the electrolyte.

MeSH Terms:

Comparative Study Corrosion Dental Alloys/chemistry* English Abstract Palladium*

Substances: Palladium Dental Alloys

Adverse Health Effects of Palladium

Metal cations in dental alloys such as mercury and palladium are
continuously released and accumulate in the kidneys, liver, thyroid,
brain, CNS, etc.(1,15). Mercury and palladium have high levels of
galvanic current densities when near other metals, with the current
densities of Pd alloys approx. 10 times higher than for high noble
alloys(16). This causes extensive migration of mercury and palladium to
saliva, tooth roots, jaw, gums, and other parts of the body(15,16).

Like mercury, palladium is cytotoxic and kills or damages
cells(12,13,14). Palladium also causes considerable damage and
degradation of DNA and exacerbates hydroxyl radical damage (13,14).
Palladium also damages cell mitochondria and inhibits enzyme activity
and function (9,10,11).

Palladium also causes significant numbers of allergic reactions as well
as contact dermatitis, stomatitis, lichinoid reactions, and periodontal
gum disease(4,5,6,7,8).

Because of its toxicity and high mobility, many cases of palladium
poisoning have resulted and palladium in dental alloys has been banned
in Switzerland, Likewise the German Health Ministry has been warning
dentists since 1993 not to use palladium-copper alloys.

The warning against using palladium alloys came as a result of
poisonings and lab tests in Germany that showed the following toxic
effects of palladium: * Obstruction of important enzyme systems like
creatin-linase, aldolase, alcalite phospatase,
carbon-anhydrease,trypsin, chymotropsin, cellulase; * Disturbance of
collage synthesis like bone and cartilage; * Obstruction of thymidin in
the DNA; * Accumulation in body organs; * Allergic reaction- esp. for
people with nickel allergy.

Based on German studies and cases, early symptoms of palladium toxicity
include: increased salivation; pain in teeth and jaw; burning tounge;
cold feeling in mouth; metal taste, peeling of mucous membrane around
teeth; fungus like coating in throat and sore throat; painful, swollen
lymph nodes in the neck; extreme nervousness, extreme tiredness,
confusion, memory loss, dizziness, migraine headaches, burning of eyes,
allergies, impairment of immune system, blisters on body.

Late symptoms of palladium poisoning include: dying of the teeth,
granulomas, puss pockets with dead tissue, swollen tongue; nerve pain in
the face; paralysis of face; muscle cramps of tongue, lips, around eyes;
sinus infection, bronchitis and lung ailments without clear reason;
difficulty breathing at night; problems with stomach, intestines, liver,
bladder, kidneys; weight loss; joint and muscle pain; muscle cramps and
weakness; earnoise; visual disturbance; depression, insomnia; outbreaks
of sweat, palpitations, difficulty concentrating.

(1) A.Schedle et al, "Response of fibroblasts to various metal cations", J
Dent Res, Aug 1995, 74(8):1513-1520.
(2) L. Niemi et al, "In vitro cytotoxicity of Ag-Pd-Cu based alloys", J
Biomed Mater Res, May 1985, 19(5):549-561.
(3) S.Takeda et al, "Corrosion behavior of Ag-Pd alloys and its
cytotoxicity", shika Zairyo Kikai, Nov 1990, 9(6):825-830.
(4) A.M. Al-roubaie, "Condition of the periodontion of teeth with
silver-palladium bridge", Fogorv Sz , Jul 1986, 79(7):207-212.
(5) D. Downey, "Contact mucositis due to palladium", Contact Dermatitis, Jul
1989, 21(1):54.
(6) J.A.Marcusson, "Contact allergies to palladium chloride", Contact
Dermatitis, May 1996, 34(5): 320-323.
(7) J.Vilaplana et al, "Adverse oral mucous membrane reactions to dental
prostheses", Feb 1994, 30(2): 80-84.
(8) A Henston-Pettersen, "Casting Alloy side effects", Adv Dent Res, Sep
1992, 6:38-43.
(9) G.M.Kolesova et al, "Effect of Palladium compounds on mitrochondrial
enzymatic systems", Vopr Med Khim, sep 1979, 25(5):537-540.
(10) J.D. Spikes et al, "Enzyme inhibition by palladium", Biochem Biophys
Res Commun, 1969, 8; 35(3);420-422.
(11) M.D. Shultz et al, "Palladium- a new inhibitor of cellulase enzyme
activity", Biochem Biophys Res Commun, Apr 1995, 209(3):1046-1052.
(12) Y Kawata et al, "Cytotoxicity of Pd-Co dental alloys",J Dent Res, Aug
1981, 60(8): 1403- 1409.
(13) T.Z.Liu et al, "Palladium exacerbates hydroxyl radical mediated DNA
damage", Free Radic Biol Med, 23(1): 155-161, 1997.
(14) C.K.Pillai et al, "Interaction of palladium with DNA", Biochem Biophys
Acta, Jan 1977, 474(1): 11-16.
(15) W.P Bieger et al, "Immunotoxocolgy of metals", Zur Deutshcen Auszahe,
(16) K.bonnig et al, "Quantitative analysis of the corrosion rates of
palladium alloys", Dtsch Azhnarztl A 45(8):508-510, Aug 1990.


A book written by Daunderer, published by ecomed shows the following
symptoms for palladium:

Local: Inflammation of mucous membranes (jaw, tongue), periodontal
disease, loss of teeth, disturbance of metabolism (bacteria, candida,
other fungal infections), metal taste

Nervous system: nervousness, headache, lack of concentration,
depression, paralysis

Immune system: allergy (akne can cover the whole body), cross allergy to
nickel, susceptibility to infections, chronic bronchitis, ? of cancer

He also states that palladium deposists irreversible in the brain,
damages all cells, is a strong nervevous system and immune system
poison, a strong allergen with cross reaction to nickel.


concerning questions about palladium: my bridge consisted of 75%
palladium, some platinum, some gold. The palladium has made me sicker
than I ever was before. I am not sure how much 3,75% will effect you.
Maybe one way to find out is have testing done with vega to see if you
react to the stuff, before you spend more money? I was found to have
"critical allergy" to palladium by vega testing. The trouble is, you
might not react today, but in a few years like it was in my case. The
vega test revealed palladium in my nervous system, thyroid, liver,
spleen. Testing of the pulled tooth by a German tox-lab revealed a
reading of 1,900 ug/kg palladium in the root of the tooth. And was
diagnosed with palladium toxicity. It is too bad that dentists in the
States are still not aware of the dangers of palladium. I had a chance
to talk to several German doctors and have read in the German literature
that palladium is as toxic as mercury-amalgam. The symptoms are very
much the same I was told, and I can assure you they are at least in my
case. I also have talked to people in Germany who had palladium crowns
or bridge work done, later had it removed because they got extremly ill.
Symptoms vary. One woman developed loss of kidney function, mouth
ulcers, gastro intestinal problems. Another one told me that all her
mucous membranes dried up, she also has severe problems with
overreactions to parfume, car exhausts, blisters and skin problems, and
cannot work at the computer any longer. She had some pretty special
analysis done showing metals like palladium, gallium, silver, cobalt,
lead in her jaw. One woman I am in contact with was diagnosed with MS
but in fact had palladium toxicity from a bridge in her mouth. She has
gone through extensive DMSA treatments in the meantime and is 90% well.
She also had a brain spintogram done with Dr. Koenig in Duesseldorf
which showed palladium in her brain. My mother's doctor in Germany told
me that palladium "goes into everything". I have to belief that that is
true, just from my own case. I just had another tooth pulled, which was
o p p o s i t e the palladium bridge under a metal bridge, testing today
with vega showed palladium in that tooth root also!!!!!! It also showed
silver and copper. The reason I was suspecious was that the root looked
all black, just like in the first tooth I had tested. I will send this
tooth to the tox lab also to have it analyzed (all this money!!!!). By
the way, the vega test of the removed bridge showed thallium in the
bridge also. I knew that thallium was somewhere in my dental metals
(obviously by mistake). I am still looking for a lab in the States that
can analyze for thallium, since the Germans are very expensive, but have
not had any luck. My mercury free dentist did not know much about
palladium either, but he sure is learning through my case......

About silver and copper. In my case that is also a problem. Copper was
found in some of my bridges, so was silver. I react to those too. I am
not sure if everybody is as sensitive as I am, but if you have any kind
of metal problems like from amalgams, I would stay away from all metals
for now. Daunderes advise is really not to put even gold into the mouth
after amalgam removal, plus gold is never just gold......

Document 1
Accession No.: 96379291.
Second Source: MED/96379291
Author: Finkelstein-Y. Vardi-J. Kesten-M-M. Hod-I.
Title: The enigma of parkinsonism in chronic borderline mercury
intoxication, resolved by challenge with penicillamine.
Source: Neurotoxicology. 1996 Spring. 17(1). P 291-5.
Abstract: A 47 year old female dentist suffered from hemiparkinsonism
which had started eighteen months earlier and was manifested
mainly by resting tremor and cogwheel rigidity. A baseline
quantitative urinary mercury excretion was 46
micrograms/day. The patient was treated with chelating agent d-
penicillamine for a week. Chelation therapy resulted in
clinical improvement of parkinsonism and in dynamic changes in
daily urinary mercury excretion with a prompt increase
to 79 micrograms/day, a subsequent decline followed by increase
in the mercury urinary excretion. After a week
chelation therapy was stopped. During a follow-up period
of five years, the neurological status remained unchanged after
the initial penicillamine-induced improvement. This case may be
evidence, therefore, of a rare clinical variant of elemental
mercury intoxication associated with parkinsonism, in
the absence of most classical neuropsychiatric signs of chronic
Holdings: Health Sciences Serials
SHELVED BY TITLE: Neurotoxicology
LIB HAS: v.7(1986)--


Hopefully this is an indication of something good happening!

Chelation Therapy is Featured on ABC's Evening News

by Michael Evers

ABC News with Peter Jennings aired a brief story on chelation therapy
Monday, October 13, during the evening news. Here's a transcript of that

PETER JENNINGS: On our Health Report tonight, another case of trying to
get the insurance companies to pay for a medical treatment that some people
think is just the ticket -- in this case, a procedure to unblock clogged
arteries that does not require surgery. In fact, the easiest way to
understand what happens is to imagine what Drano can do to a clogged pipe.
Not everyone in the medical community is sold on this experimental therapy.
But a growing number of people are. And here is ABCºs John McKenzie.

JOHN MCKENZIE, ABC NEWS: For Alan Hay, the memories are all so vivid. He
was 51 years old and about as rugged as they come. He owned a guest ranch
in Montana, worked as a trail guide and ran a logging business. Then a
heart attack two years ago brought a sudden and profound change.

ALAN HAY: Just the normal everyday things that you take for granted are
suddenly gone. Just walking, getting out of bed, climbing up stairs was
very difficult.

JOHN MCKENZIE: So Hay signed up for a controversial treatment to open his
clogged arteries. It is called chelation, a therapy now so popular that
half a million Americans use it each year. It's an intravenous drip that
passes through the arteries, removing calcium deposits that contribute to

DR RICHARD ASH, INTERNIST: With chelation therapy, we're able to increase
blood flow and then reduce the need for medication and surgery. So
therefore, there are fewer side effects and complications.

JOHN MCKENZIE: A series of 20 chelation treatments -- that's about the
average -- can cost a total of $2,000. The problem is insurance companies
won't pay for it. Although chelation has been approved for ridding the body
of heavy metals, such as lead and mercury, it has not been sanctioned for
use in heart disease and the opening of arteries, even though many patients
report profound benefits.

DR MORIE GERTZ, MAYO MEDICAL CENTER: The questions can only be answered
scientifically. I think physicians simply recognize that there are not
substantive meaningful studies published that demonstrate it is effective.

DR PATRICK FRATTELONE, CARDIOLOGIST: Keep on going for 13 minutes.

JOHN MCKENZIE: But Alan Hay and his doctor are convinced. After 20
chelation treatments, he completed a rigorous stress test.

DR PATRICK FRATTELONE: After a heart attack, you expect the function of the
heart to be abnormal, and in this case, his heart looks like it didn't even
have a heart attack.

JOHN MCKENZIE: Is that unusual?


ALAN HAY: I feel better now than I did before I had the heart attack, to be
honest with you. I'm in great shape.

JOHN MCKENZIE: These cases are now common enough that some doctors say it's
time to finally put this treatment to the test with a large, tightly
controlled clinical trial to see whether a relatively simple therapy is
actually responsible for some remarkable recoveries. John McKenzie, ABC
News, New York.

PETER JENNINGS: If you'd like some more information about this topic, you
can contact us at health@abcnews.com.

For more information,

ABC News Health Report -- Unblocking Clogged Arteries:
Getting Insurance Companies to Pay for Chelation

American College for Advancement in Medicine
(714) 583-7666


For the bridge you might consider Purealloy by Purealloy Lab in Colorada
Springs, Colorad. It's mostly gold with a little titanium. Have you had
biocompatibility testing. It's probably worth it if you are having
problems and going to spend a lot of money.

For the retreatment of the root canal and sealing it consider Bio-Calex
(calcium oxide). Sam could tell you more about that. Do a web search for

My chelation doctor doesn't think there is much harm in doing chelation
before all fillings are out. He follows up
DMPS treatment with a Vit
C/mineral IV.

If you are having joint/arthritic problems try glucosamine sulfate. It's
documented in clinical trials to work and I know several for whom it has done
wonders. You can get it in any Health Food Store.


Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is used in relatively enormous quantities
(compared to the West) in Chinese cooking as well as in the food of various
other Asiatic countries. It has long been known, or rather suspected, that
a small minority of Westerners are hypersensitive to this food additive:


I believe that persons who are recovering from amalgam toxicity
should *definately* avoid aspartame because of the potential
formaldehyde problems (among other things). I also believe that free
form excitotoxic amino acids (which often include a variety of
poorly-tested impurities) such as MSG and aspartic acid from
aspartame should be avoided as well.

I believe that MSG use is relatively rare in China (but is used in
Westernized Chinese restaurants quite a bit). It is used quite a bit in
Thailand and some other Asian countries. However, it is used in
fairly large quantities in the U.S. as well. Once one realizes that
virtually every statement and "fact" which is produced by the
aspartame/MSG industry is provably untrue, then it becomes necessary
to look closer at these usage surveys conducted by the industry. It
turns out that very old surveys show low usage of MSG in the
U.S. Newer surveys do not take into account the fact that the
industry now hides MSG in food ingredients which are then added to
foods unlabelled. MSG usages in Europe, however, appears to be
relatively low at this point in time.

quoted text:

"There have been numerous challenges of MSG-induced adverse
reactions in individuals, all of which have failed to reproduce
the symptoms associated with Chinese restaurant syndrome," said
Steve Taylor, Ph.D., professor and head of the Food Science
Department at the University of Nebraska. Studies measuring
objective responses such as blood pressure, heart rate, skin
temperature and muscle tone have been unable to detect
differences between persons fed MSG and placebo.

This is an example of outright dishonesty in the scientific
community regarding potentially toxic substances. It is toleration
of statements like this (whether they comes from the aspartame, MSG,
fluoride, amalgam, tobacco, breast implant, etc. industries) which
is why myself and I believe a very large and growing number of others
rely on common sense, grandma's advice, and quite a few other things
long before putting faith in the scientific community. Of course,
myself and many others do not start out with such a strong view.
Many people will prefer to wait 10, 20, 100 years until special
interest groups have finally been overcome by honest scientists.
That is fine, but I don't recommend it.

There are quite a few studies (including several double-blind
studies) showing that MSG causes adverse reactions (including some
potentially serious reactions). One researcher estimated 30% will
react to MSG at 5 grams (an amount found in some restaurant meals).
What Dr. Taylor is neglecting to mention is that it is only
industry-funded studies which never show any increase in reactions in
the test group above the placebo group. Perhaps this is because all
industry experiments since 1978 had aspartame (which breaks down into
an excitotoxic amino acid like MSG, methanol, etc.) hidden in the
beverage mixture given to both groups. This fact was hidden from the
scientific community and the public and was only discovered many
years later because of an inadvertant disclosure by an International
Glutamate Technical Committee official. There are, of course, many
other major flaws in these industry experiements which would account
for the lack of increase in reactions found. Please see the Aspartic
Acid chapter in the draft review on my aspartame web page.

quoted text:
Currently all foods with added MSG must list the ingredient on
the label as monosodium glutamate. FDA recently announced it may
broaden the requirement to require listing of glutamate when it
is a significant functional component of other ingredients such
as hydrolyzed protein.

In the U.S., the labelling laws allow the food industry to put MSG
into a *food ingredient* and then add that ingredient to the food
without having to label the MSG. They can also add a wide variety of
forms of glutamic acid below 99% pure glutamic acid and avoid calling
it MSG. It's a game that the food industry calls "Clean Labels."

In announcing the change, FDA underscored that the decision is
due to public interest in the issue and not from any health
concern about MSG's safety. The tentative final regulation is
expected to be published in mid-1992.

The FDA sat on this proposal for years because the food industry was
against it. It was only a recent lawsuit by the Truth in Labelling
Committee which forced the FDA to start taking action in order to
impress the judge in hopes of getting the suit dismissed. Please see:

At http://ificinfo.health.org/brochure/msg.htm is a document dated
September 1991 with the title "What You Should Know About MSG". There MSG
is described as extremely safe.

IFIC is a junk food industry-funded PR organization. I can virtually
guarantee that they would find mercury amalgams perfectly safe had
reviewed that literature. The accuracy of the information given out
by IFIC is on the same level as that given out on amalgams by the
NCAHF -- a significant amount of convincing-sounding, provably
inaccurate or irrelevant information.

Many people with ALS seem to shun MSG. I don't know the evidence on the
hazards of MSG, but one of the basic facts of the case must certainly be
that MSG is used in large quantities by whole populations in Asia without
apparent ill effects. On the whole, I should think, the dietary habits of
the peoples involved are much less foolish than those of average
Westerners. And there is no money in MSG as such. I can buy it very cheaply
in 500 g bags in a nearby town.

One might say that "mercury amalgam is used by countless
millions without apparent ill effects." While acute reactions to
MSG appear to be lower in Asia, the much more serious concerns of
damage from the excitotoxic effects may very well be effecting the
countries where it is used in large amounts. The industry is fond of
making statements that such effects are not seen in these countries.
However, looking at the scientific literature in Thailand and the
U.S., one can see a trend of neuroendocrine and reproductive
disorders similar to what is seen in the excitotoxic amino acid
experiments in animals. Please see the Aspartic Acid chapter of the
draft aspartame review mentioned earlier.

The money from MSG comes in the huge volume sold in some parts of
Asia and in the U.S.

ABSTRACT: The level of aspartame in a can of Diet Coke was found to be
0.06% by a food testing laboratory. The remaining cans from one case of
percent aspartame, 0.001 percent DKP and 53.5 parts per billion of
formaldehyde. The room temperature sample contained 0.051 percent
aspartame, 0.002 percent DKP and 231 parts per billion of formaldehyde.

Is a concentration of 231 parts per billion (ppb) of formaldehyde
hazardous? I don't know, but it depends of course on how much Coke you
drink. The U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Safety & Health
Administration have a document on formaldehyde at
http://www.osha-slc.gov/OshStd_data/1910.1048.html. This is centered on
concentrations in indoor air (8-hour exposure), which is of course not the
same as food safety, but it appears that concentrations below 500-750 ppb
are not considered hazardous (Permissible Exposure Level, PEL). Again, I am
asking because I am ignorant, and because I am interested in these
important problems.

The OSHA figures are based on inhalation exposure. I posted earlier
about formaldehyde and composites asking how much, if any, is

The Wantke (1996) study showed chronic adverse effects in children
at levels starting around 0.05 ppm [50 ppb] and a couple of listed in
National Research Council (1981, page 186) show adverse effects
starting near that level. (Apparently children are sensitive at
lower levels than adults.)

I believe that formaldehyde is much more toxic when inhaled as
opposed to ingested. This may be because less is absorbed or it is
quickly converted by the liver to CO2 as discussed in Owen (1990).
The question then becomes how much formaldehyde from the composites
are *inhaled* as opposed to ingested. I also wonder if it varies
from composite to composite. Finally, I wonder if any of the
compounds inhaled together could lead to a synergistic adverse

Dagfin pointed out (I believe) that only an extremely small amount of
formaldehyde is released from composite fillings and primarily in the
first days after the cavity is filled.

I believe that the overwhelming majority of formaldehyde from
aspartame comes from the methanol part which is absorbed and then
converted to formaldehyde. That, in my opinion, is a bigger concern
for those who are trying to avoid slow poisoning.

Best Wishes,

Thallium is chemically related to plumbum and toxicologically to plumbum and
arscnicum. It affects mainly the nervous system, some of its effects probably
due to disturbances of the peripheral and sympathetic nerve, others to
disturbances of the peripheral motor and sensory nerves. In addition it
produces hypochlorhydria, gastroenteritis. nephritis, folliculitis of the
hairs and various skin symptoms.

Mind : Irritability, oversensifivitv (cries or shouts at the least
provocation), later apathy, dullness, delirious states, sometimes euphoria,

General: Loss of weight, fatigue, as if after a severe sickness,
Epileptic attacks.

Head: Headaches, pains in occiput. Every morning strong
occipital pain lasting one hour,

Eyes: Dilation of pupils. Conjunctivitis and Blepharitis.
Ulcer of cornea, Ptosis, Retrobulbar nephritis, central scotoma
for red and green.

Digestive tract: Stomatitis; Glossitis: dryness, burning, salivation. Loss
of appetite, nausea, vomiting. Cramps in stomach and abdomen, lancinating
pains. Diarrhoea and constipation.

Urinary and genital tract: Tenesm, involuntary urination, polyuria,
nephritis, eystitis. Impotence. Amenorrhoea.(no periods)

Respiratory organs: Shortness of breath, oppression of chest, drawing pains,
Bronchitis. Broncho-pneumonia.

Heart and circulation: Tachycardia. Anginal pains. Elevation of blood
pressure with slow pulse. Coldness of hands and feet.

Nervous system: Lancinating, drawing, boring, burning, violent, intolerable
pains, not relieved by analgesics, incl. Morphine; pains particularly, in
legs with paresthesias, tingling, numbness, sensation of coldness or
burning. Sensation "as if wet felt were placed around legs," "as if legs were
lying in glass splinters" "as if legs were enlarged": terrible pains in
fingertips: clawposition of fingers and toes: pains in legs worse from
standing and stepping. Tosses in bed, moaning with pains. Arthralgia.
Decreased sensitivity for touch, at the same time hypersensitivity of skin;
cannot bear to be touched: does not dare to breathe or eat because of pain.
Worse from pressure of bed and clothing. Worse from motion. Periodicity of
pains. Loss of reflexes, paresis and paralysis of muscles. Choreatic

Sleep: Insomnia, not affected by hypnotics. Somnolence.

Shin: Outbreaks of perspiration. Pustules. Herpes. Hyperkeratosis of palms
and soles. White lines across the nails, Loss of hair, particularly of

Characteristics of Thallium: Intense, lancinating pains, not influenced by
analgetics, (probably of central origin) with hypersensitivity of the skin
and paraesthesia, coldness of painful parts, or intense burnign. Alopecia.
Neuritis and paralysis.

Clinical suggestions: Neuralgia, neuritis, polyneuritis, tabes dorsalis.
Retrobulbar nemitis. Alopecia.

- Journal of the American Institute of Homeopathy, Sept. 1951